Environmental sustainability is the foundation for achieving peaceful and prosperous social settings. In the past decades, individuals have revolutionized the intellect of globalization and telecommunication enabling them with the prospect to indulge in contemporary activities, however, these activities often culminate in unthinkable consequences rendered by future generations.
The idea of planetary boundaries was first brought up by Johan Rockström and his team in 2009 emphasizing the boundaries that humans must respect to avoid causing permanent damage to the environment’s key system processes, including climate change, biodiversity loss, ocean acidification, ozone depletion, freshwater use, Biogeochemical cycles, land use change, chemical pollution, and atmospheric aerosol loading.
Elucidating its Importance:
Recognizing these boundaries is essential to ensure the sustainability of Earth's vital systems and secure a habitable planet for future generations. The correlation of these boundaries underlies the essence and urgency of regulating them harmonically. Influence on a single framework engrains others tangibly.
For instance: Exceeding the boundary for climate change affects global temperatures while impacting other systems like biodiversity, freshwater availability, and ocean currents.
Planetary boundaries provide an intensive framework to interpret the outcomes of conducts we procure, encouraging impressionable societal, economic, and ecological change. Staying within these limits can ensure the health of our planet's ecosystems and secure the well-being of current and future generations.
Maintaining the stability and resilience of our planet requires us to adhere to the planetary boundaries. Crossing these boundaries can result in abrupt environmental changes posing a threat to life.
The Nine Planetary Boundaries:
Stratospheric ozone depletion:
The appearance of the Antarctic ozone hole was proof that increased concentrations of anthropogenic ozone-depleting chemical substances, interacting with polar stratospheric clouds had passed a threshold and moved the Antarctic stratosphere into a new regime.
Loss of biosphere integrity:
Demand for food, water, and natural resources are the primary drivers of change, resulting in significant biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services which are either stable, with no signs of decline over time, or they are becoming more intense by which damage and extinction can be lowered by measures to safeguard the integrity of the biosphere, improve habitat and improve the ecosystem connectedness.
Toxic and long-lived chemical emissions, such as synthetic organic pollutants, heavy metal compounds, and radioactive elements, have transgressed the Earth’s thresholds and are among the significant human-caused alterations to the global environment. These substances have the potential to have permanent effects on living species and the physical environment.
Climate change is one of the 6 planetary boundaries which have transgressed Earth’s thresholds depicting Earth, now passing 390 ppmv CO2 in the atmosphere. The level of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is a major factor in determining climate change which aims to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, to reduce the risk of irreversible climate impacts.
Around a quarter of the CO2 that humanity emits into the atmosphere is ultimately dissolved in the oceans. Rising acidity due to intense CO2 makes it hard for organisms such as coral reefs and plankton species to grow and survive which will change the structure and dynamics of ocean ecosystems and could lead to drastic reductions in fish stocks.
Human-caused alterations in water bodies include global-scale river flow changes and shifts in vapor flows caused by terrestrial changes. These hydrological system alterations can be dramatic and irreversible as water is becoming increasingly scarce. By 2050, over half a billion people are anticipated to be water-lessened.
Land system change:
The land is converted to human use all over the planet. Forests play a particularly important role in controlling the linked dynamics of land use and climate and are the focus of the boundary for land system change. A boundary for human changes to land systems needs to reflect the absolute quantity of land and its function, quality, and spatial distribution.
Nitrogen and phosphorus flows:
Due to industrial and agricultural activities that affect soil, water bodies, and air quality, humans have caused significant changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles. Long-term nutrition control is necessary, and the border aims to achieve this goal to prevent consequences.
Atmospheric aerosol loading:
Tiny particles called aerosols that are suspended in the atmosphere affect climate patterns and air quality. It is important to prevent unintended consequences to maintain the balance between cooling and warming effects caused by aerosols.
Addressing planetary boundaries requires a global collaborative effort by Governments, industries, communities, and individuals who can portray promoting sustainable practices, conserving resources, reducing emissions, and fostering innovation. Youth can consolidate dynamically to empower solutions towards the intense influence of the planetary boundaries and envision a sustainable future.
https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.1259855 -- Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet
https://news.mongabay.com/2021/03/the-nine-boundaries-humanity-must-respect-to-keep-the-planet-habitable/ -- The nine boundaries humanity must respect to keep the planet habitable