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  • Serra El Shorbagy

Fast fashion: Environmental Concerns and What to Do

Updated: Feb 1

Fast fashion refers to the rapid production and consumption of inexpensive clothing items inspired by runway trends. It is characterized by short production cycles, low prices, and a constant influx of new styles. While fast fashion has gained popularity for its affordability and accessibility, it also raises significant concerns regarding its environmental impact, labor conditions, and ethical practices.

One of the key issues associated with fast fashion is its environmental footprint. The production of clothing involves resource-intensive processes such as growing cotton, dyeing fabrics, and manufacturing garments. According to research by McKinsey & Company (1), the fashion industry is responsible for around 10% of global carbon emissions, more than international flights and maritime shipping combined. The excessive use of water, energy, and chemicals in textile production contributes to pollution and depletion of natural resources.

Furthermore, fast fashion's business model encourages overconsumption and disposable clothing culture. According to Elizabeth L. Cline, author of "Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion," (2) consumers today purchase 60% more garments than they did fifteen years ago but keep them for half as long. This constant turnover leads to massive amounts of textile waste, as garments often end up in landfills.

Another significant concern is the labor conditions within the fast fashion industry. To keep up with the demand for low-cost clothing, many brands outsource production to countries with lower labor costs and fewer regulations. This outsourcing often leads to exploitative working conditions, low wages, and long hours for garment workers. The Clean Clothes Campaign (3), an international alliance advocating for worker's rights in the global garment industry, highlights numerous instances of labor rights violations and unsafe working environments in fast fashion supply chains.

In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of these issues, leading to increased efforts towards sustainable and ethical fashion practices. Various initiatives have emerged to promote transparency, fair trade, and environmentally friendly production methods within the industry. Sustainable fashion brands are focusing on using organic or recycled materials, implementing ethical labor practices, and adopting circular economy principles.

There are Four main categories of people responsible for overcoming the problem of fast fashion:

  1. Fashion industry experts: These experts have in-depth knowledge and understanding of the fashion industry, including its trends, practices, and impact on society and the environment.

  2. Sustainability experts: These experts specialize in analyzing and assessing the environmental and social impacts of various industries, including fashion. They can provide insights into the sustainability practices and challenges within the fast fashion industry.

  3. Consumer behavior experts: These experts study consumer trends, preferences, and behaviors, which are crucial in understanding the demand for fast fashion and its effects on consumer choices.

  4. And of course YOU!! Consumer awareness and behavior also play a crucial role in addressing the challenges of fast fashion. As consumers become more conscious of the environmental and social impact of their choices, they are increasingly demanding transparency from brands and seeking sustainable alternatives. A study conducted by Nielsen (4) found that 73% of global consumers are willing to change their consumption habits to reduce their environmental impact.

Here are some individual practices that can be implemented:

  1. Buying Less and Buying Better: One of the most effective ways to combat fast fashion is by reducing overall consumption and investing in high-quality, durable clothing items. Instead of constantly buying cheap, disposable garments, individuals can opt for timeless pieces that are made to last.

  2. Choosing Sustainable Materials: When purchasing new clothing items, it is important to consider the materials used in their production. Natural fibers like organic cotton, linen, hemp, and wool have a lower environmental impact compared to synthetic materials such as polyester or nylon. By choosing sustainable materials, individuals can support brands that prioritize eco-friendly production processes.

  3. Supporting Ethical Brands: Researching and supporting brands that prioritize ethical manufacturing practices is crucial in combating fast fashion. Look for brands that pay fair wages to workers, provide safe working conditions, and have transparent supply chains. Many organizations and certifications, such as Fair Trade or B Corp, can help identify such brands.

  4. Shopping Secondhand: Opting for secondhand clothing is an excellent way to reduce the demand for new products and extend the lifespan of existing garments. Thrift stores, consignment shops, online marketplaces, and clothing swaps are great sources for finding unique and affordable pre-loved items.

  5. Repairing and Upcycling: Instead of discarding damaged clothing, individuals can learn basic sewing skills or seek professional help to repair them. Upcycling old garments into new designs or repurposing them into other useful items helps reduce waste and promotes creativity.

  6. Renting or Borrowing: Another alternative to purchasing new clothing is renting or borrowing. Many platforms and services now offer clothing rental options, allowing individuals to wear different styles for special occasions without the need for permanent ownership.

  7. Educating Yourself: Staying informed about the negative impacts of fast fashion and understanding the benefits of sustainable alternatives is essential. Engage with educational resources, documentaries, and books that shed light on the industry's issues and provide guidance on making more conscious choices.

  8. Supporting Policy Changes: Individuals can also contribute to systemic change by supporting policies and regulations that promote sustainable fashion practices. This can include advocating for extended producer responsibility, stricter environmental regulations, and fair labor standards.

To summarize, fast fashion is a phenomenon that has revolutionized the fashion industry but has also brought about significant environmental and social consequences. Its rapid production cycles, low prices, and disposable nature contribute to resource depletion, pollution, labor exploitation, and excessive waste generation. However, there is a growing movement towards sustainable fashion practices and increased consumer awareness. By supporting ethical brands, extending the lifespan of garments through reuse or recycling, and advocating for transparent supply chains, individuals can contribute to a more sustainable future for the fashion industry.


  1. McKinsey & Company - A global management consulting firm that provides insights and research on various industries, including the fashion industry.

  2. "Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion" by Elizabeth L. Cline - A book that explores the environmental and social impacts of fast fashion.

  3. Clean Clothes Campaign - An international alliance advocating for worker's rights in the global garment industry.

  4. Fashion Revolution (

  5. Sustainable Apparel Coalition (

  6. Ellen MacArthur Foundation (

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